No Words are Powerful Enough
Express the Importance
of Basic Scientific
HISTORICAL INSTRUMENTS OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY FOR SALE & FOR PROPS
by Jim & Rhoda Morris
9 Morningside Rd. Wakefield Ma. 01880 ---call 781 245 2897 firstname.lastname@example.org
Click here to Visit our Web site at SciTechAntiques.com
Click here to go directly to our Galileo telescope pages
Galvanometer and the Telescope
The two photo's on the left above are Copy righted by Istituto e Museo di Storia della Scienza
Click Picture to make it larger
to see Astatic galvanometers at work
in Edison's Menlo Park development laboratory where the light bulb was invented.
The Astatic Galvanometer in the hands of a master inventor.
Thomas Edison's first light bulb used to demonstrate his invention at Menlo Park.
This photo shows you what one of
Galileo's telescopes looked like when it was new. Click on photo of our replica of Galileo's telescope to
make it larger, click on that photo to make it even larger
No Words are Powerful Enough To Express The Importance Of Basic Scientific Research To Each Of Us And Our Future. We must fight for its rights!
Perhaps we should recognized,
sponsor and establish a yearly world celebration for the
12 most significant scientific instruments. one a month. It would be
Astatic Galvanometers; gave us our
first meaningful connection to the micro universe of the electron.
completely revolutionizing our finger tip control of great power: tapping
the energy of the atom, communicate
around the world and to the planets, looking into our genes putting
our telescopes on other planets etc.etc.etc.etc.etc.etc.etc.etc.etc.etc.etc.etc.etc.etc.etc.etc..
Galileo's telescopes, and early examples of astatic galvanometers
are on display at the
IMSS in Florence Italy The telescope is out in front one of the
first things one see's. The little astatic galvanometers that showed us
how to have finger tip control of enormous power is
almost hidden in a darkish room off to one side. Hmmm?
click here to visit our page on making this fine and very precise instrument for Adler Planetarium.
Nobili 's astatic galvanometers like the telescope, which magnifies the effect of photons on our eyes, magnifies effects of electrons flowing by the action of a compass needle in a circuit. The astatic galvanometer is responsible for switching on the technological world we live in. Like the telescope the astatic galvanometer gave us the view of the universe ,but in this case the micro universe, of the electrons so that we could benefit from this knowledge to harness the energy of electron to our everyday needs.
The astatic galvanometers were the first instruments, after the discovery of the initial connection of electricity and magnetism, to give us quantitative and sensitive measurements to guide us through the micro universe of the electrons how to use them in new inventions and instruments this in spite of the fact that we can't see them as we do with photons.
Electrons are the messengers connecting our ears, eyes,
nose, and sense of touch to our brains. They also do the shuffling
of the activities of the brain. They do the chemistry of the universe.
There are more electrons in our bodies than atoms and molecules, and
there are many more electrons in the universe then stars. With this
endorsement why has there been such little recognition of the instrument
and the technologist that opened the door to the universe of the
electron with the astatic galvanometer and as Galileo opened the door of the
astronomical universe with his photon telescope?
Don't they ever get tired? Isn't it sad that electrons are not treated like the super stars that they are? What would happen if they went out on strike?
|It measures electric current i.e. The
number of electrons passing through the instrument per second.
There are close to 6.? x 1018 electrons every second going through a 100 watt light bulb.
A astatic galvanometer operates (similar to a telescope it magnifies) it reads very small currents. It can easily measure one millionth of the electric current going through a 100 watt Edison light bulb operating on direct current. (i.e. a microampere). It can detect and measure the electric signal of the current generated in a muscle when it is being flexed. It measured the telegraph signal going thru the 2000 mile cable crossing the Atlantic.
Etching is from a 1870 a natural philosophy text. the little needle on the platter rotates from zero as current passes through the instrument. The more current the more it moves..
The one word definitions from the American heritage Dictionary
galvanometern. An instrument used to detect, measure, and determine the direction of small electric currents by means of mechanical effects produced by a coil in a magnetic field. --galvanometric or galvanometrical ad --galvanometry n.
A short technical description
Below note the astatic galvanometer is center stage of a typical laboratory set up to measurement resistance of a special coil such as Dr. A. Bell's Telephone , Dr. A. Bell's Metal Detector and T Edison work in electrical instruments including the Edison effect leading ultimately to the vacuum tube the late 1800's.
Another version of the operation of astatic
galvanometer for the readers consideration and a bit of the development history
Instruments of Natural Philosophy "T.B. Greenslade Jr
These instruments can
be beautiful and playful.
Below one of our astatic galvanometer we recently made as functional display piece. It measures current in the 1/1000 ampere range.
Our replica of Galileo's beautiful Telescope The other
important instrument in our lives.
Below are close in shots of our Galvanometer.
They come in a range of sizes. Below are some tangent galvanometers small, medium, and large.
They got pretty big... Below is a 12 foot high Helmholz Galvanometer
The engraving above while not a pocket electric meter nor a
galvanometer has the coil design of a Helmholtz /tangent galvanometer.
THE IMSS in Florence Italy
has not only the exiting Galileo telescopes but also examples of
|Random notes to be expanded on
1-15-07- connections----------Photons and electrons can both treated as particles . They both flow. The movement of electrons on the surface of a star generates photons. some of which are collected by the objective lens of Galileo's telescope the photons are processed by the lenses and are directed into the observer's eye where they are converted back to electrons movement. This is further processed electrically and sent to the brain where more electrons are processed into an image which is further process with more electrons into an interpretation of what we see. This information is further process by even more electrons such as into the movement of our fingers jotting down notes in a notebook. Electrons electrons, they are everywhere doing everything but they're not given credit for anything.
1-17-07 Neither Galileo nor Nobili invented their instruments, Both instruments were amplifiers of a phenomena discovered by earlier work. Their instrument were used to make quantitative measurements of phenomena that could not be made with unaided humans senses. both made break through improvements in their instruments which let us see and measure things that or forever changed our world!
1-18-07 junk stuff there are about 6 * 10^-9 grams of
electrons per second in 1 ampere???
Hydrogen is 1 gram per mole.
1 amp is a coulomb per second
1 coulomb is abt 6.24 10^18 electrons
??????????0.88 * 10^ -19 grams per electron * 6 * 10^18 electrons per second = 5.28 * 10^-1 I'm to tired to finish this and I'm going to bed